Tamil trade – Maritime trade

“Find the Ocean Running Material”

– Avvaiyar

The ancient Tamils ​​traded by sea to many countries of the world in order to gain wealth. On the banks of the Ganges, Badalipuram traded with many countries such as Sri Lanka, Burma, Kadaram (Malaysia), Chavakanadu (East Indies), Arab countries, Egypt, Greece (Rome, Greece) and many ports were under Tamil control. The Attikumba inscriptions state that “the trading town of Pithumta in the country of Kalinga has been under Tamil control for a long time and that the Kalinga king who reclaimed it plowed and destroyed the city”.

There are references to teak wood in the palace of the Jewish King Solomon in the Jewish Torah. Trade relations with the Greeks can be traced back to the book “The Periplus of the Erith-rean Sea”. The book states that pearls found in the city of Korkai are more valuable than any other commodity. References by Pliny and Ptolemy also refer to the coveted trade relations of the Tamils ​​and the glory of the ancient ports of Tamil Nadu. Roman coins and roulette artefacts found below. Archaeological excavations at places such as Alagankulam and Arikamedu in Pondicherry near the hall have uncovered Egyptian pottery, pottery, beads and coins of the Nanda kings.

Ports :
During the Sangam period, special ports like Korkai, Musiri, Kavirippoompattinam, Kumari, Eirpattinam, Kollathurai, Arikamedu, Marungurpattinam, Mangalore, Naravu and Vaikkarai were functioning.

Credit :
It is a prominent port of the Pandyan kings of the Sangam period. Situated on the estuary of the Tamiraparani River, the port was a major trading center until the 10th century AD, as noted in the Periplus and Ptolemy’s notes. In the Sangam literature, Maduraikkanchi mentions the glory of this port in many places.

Musiri :

Muzaffarnagar is one of the most important ports in the country. The Greeks came in large numbers to the port of Musiri to buy the pepper of the country. The Greeks refer to Musiri as ‘Musiris’. The Valmiki Ramayana refers to Musiri as ‘Murasi Padanam’.

“The melody of the melody

Bandar, who hates goodness

கமழுந் தாழைக் கானலம் பெருந்துறை “

(6th Ten 5)

This song of the edition mentions that gold and pearls were sold in the mall of Muzaffarnagar.

On the island of Kadaluthurutti in the Arabian Sea, the number of Greek ships coming to the port of Musiri is low due to pirates. Imayavarampan, who ruled Cheranadu on that day, sent his son Cheran Sengkuttuvan with a large force without Neduncheralathan. Fifty songs indicate that Cheran Sengkuttuvan defeated them, cut down the big tree there, knocked it down and declared his victory.

In a song composed by Cheran Malayaman, a feminist named Marokathu Nappasalaiyar

“சினமிகு தானை வானவன் குடகடல்பொலந்தரு நாவாய்ஒட்டிய அவ்வழிப்பிறகலம் செல்லகாது அனையேம்”

– (Purananuru 126 (lines 14-16)

Puluvar says that when Cheran sails his warship in the West Sea, no one else can pay for his vessels there.

Kavirippoompattinam : 1

Another world-famous port during the Sangam period was the port of Kavirippoompattinam, the Chola complaint. Texts like Pattinapalai, Silappathikaram and Purananuru mention this a lot. Ptolemy referred to the port as Sabaris. In which case the value of a port will rise depending on the time it takes for it to be exported and imported. The infrastructure of the port must be in place to complete these in the shortest possible time. Complaint says the port is such a specialized port.

“‌‌” was as good-natured as the middle of the day

Vaduanji verbally sought to agree with himself and others

Don’t underestimate the value of giving and receiving. “

(Pattinapalai 206)

The song says that the complaining merchants were impartial, fearful of reproach, valued themselves and others together, and received less when giving, and more when receiving.


Meepai kalayatu misiparan dig

Pukaar Pukuntha Perungalam, Takaar

Take the Intermediate Highway

கடற்பல தாரத்த நாடகிழ வோயே “


Uraiyur Mudukannan Sathanar says that the merchant ships that come to the complaint do not roll the mats and do not carry the load.

“The language is growing

Department of Diaspora Mags Consultancy

முட்டாச் சிறப்பிற் பட்டினம் “

(Pattinapalai 216-218)

A song in the Manimegala states that a merchant named Sadugan was on his way to Chavaka Nadu from Kaveripompattinam when his ship capsized near Nagarmalai and he grabbed a tree and took refuge on the island.

“Naliyiru Munnir Valikalan Vauva;

About Odimaram, to kick the cart,

Nakka Scout, Nagar Vazhmalai

The pagan is Panmayan Ainan; “

(Hour-16; (13-16))

The song mentions that many country sailors who could speak many languages ​​stayed in the complaint.

“It simply came to our notice then

The ebony cover that came from the foot

North Mountain birth bell and gold

The radius and axilla of the umbilical cord

The sea kisses and the sea swells

The use of the Ganges and the Cauvery

Eelam Support and Kazakh Impact

Rare and large thin indie

Refuse to be enchanted by prosperity “

(Pattinapalai 185-193)

This song lists the items that came in the complaint.

Similarly, the port of Kollathurai in Nellore, now in Andhra Pradesh, on the banks of the Vadapennayar, the port of Eirpattinam in the Marakkanam area of ​​Thondai Nadu, the port of Arikamedu in Pondicherry, and the two ports of Thondi in Chera Nadu and Pandya Nadu are special. References from Periplus and Ptolemy, as well as Sanskrit literature and archaeological evidence, confirm this.

Commercial Goods:

Palanthamil has exported many products such as sugar, pepper, toddy, salt, pearls, sapphires, teak, surgery (cloth), Valampuri conch. They have imported goods such as horses and gold.

Sugarcane : 1

“The cane machine will split against the weeds

Selectman Koman Thenur “

This five hundred song mentions that in the Pandya country there was a sugarcane juice squeezing machine and a winery distillery in Thenur.

“It simply came to our notice then

The cane that breaks the eyebrows “

Verse 340 mentions that in the Tamil book Malaipadu Kadam.

Toddy :

The names s, teral, hat, squeeze, naravu, makhil, moddu, etc. were given to wine in ancient times. It is also known as the “fruitful search of the coconut leaf” (Manimegalai 3:89), “Irum Panam Thimpizhi” (Nartinai 38: 3), and “Pinarp Pennaip Pilip” (Pattinapalai 89) The Sangam literature also mentions that.

Pepper :

During the Sangam period, Cheranadu was the most valuable pepper growing place in the world. The Greeks imported large quantities of pepper from Cheranat. Pepper they called ‘Greek Priya’. The Tamils ​​called it chilli curry and miriyal.

“With the fullness of the static number

The large fruit of the small pod is myrrh

Vaginal scarring fasting

Anarsevic donkey will be served with satin

உலகுடைப் பெருவழி “

(General Force 77-89)

In this song, Kadiyalur Uruthira Kannanar mentions that he went across the highway carrying packets of pepper on his donkey and paid the toll at the toll booth on the way.

” Joiner

Stir in the gall bladder

Yavanar Dhanta Vinaman Nankalam

Come with gold and name with curry

வளங்கெழு முசிறி “

(Exodus 149: 8-11)

Thayakannar mentions that the Greeks gave gold coins and bought pepper in the port of Musiri.

Salt : 1

During the Sangam period the salt merchant was called Umanar. “Uvarvilai Uppin Uzhaa Uzhavar

Towards Okai Umanar Varupatham

Guarded garbage “

(Genesis 331: 1-3)

The salt was then piled up in piles. Then, the song says they were looking forward to the salt merchant coming to buy salt.

Pearl :

Pearls were found in large numbers on the shores of the Korkai Sea in Pandya.

“Of uniform fall

Of expensive mature fall

இலங்கு வளை யிருஞ்சேரிக்

கட்கொண்டிக் குடிப்பாக்கத்து

நற்கொற்கையோர் நசைப் பொருண “

(Maduraikkanchi 134-138)

‘Pandian Nedunchezhiyan, who won the title,’ mentions the glory of Korkai.

Sapphire :

Gometam sapphire is found in large quantities in the small kingdom of Punnadu in Kongunat. It is mostly bought and worn by Roman panthers. Tulu king Nannan, who wanted to capture the sapphire mine of Punnat, has waged war on it. Knowing this, Cheramannan Kalakkai Kanni Narmudi Cheral sent an army led by his army chief Ai Einan to prevent Nannan from capturing Punnat. Paranar mentions this as follows.

“Polampoon Nannan Punnadu was bitten

Yangon, the rubbish who refuses to pray

Anchallenra Ai Einan

இகலடு கற்பிற் மிஞிலியொடு தாக்கித்

தன்னுயிர் கொடுத்தனன் “

(Acts 396: 2-6)



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